US Foreign Policy Toward Latin America and the Caribbean


“The Cold War and Its Aftermath in the Americas: The Search for a Synthetic Interpretation of U.S. Policy – A Review Essay,” Latin American Research Review, Vol. 45, No. 3 (December 2010).

“Haiti,” Foreign Service Journal, November 1995.

“The Latin American Option,” Foreign Policy 88 (Fall 1992). (In Mexico as “Del Big Brother al Buen Vecino,” Nexos 180, 1992).

“The Caribbean in the 21st Century,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 70, No. 3 (Summer 1991). With Richard Fletcher.

“Mexico’s Post-Revolutionary Opening: Salinas Takes A Gamble,” The New Republic, September 10 & 17, 1990: 27-32.

“Securing a Democratic Hemisphere,” Foreign Policy 73 (Winter 1988-1989): 41-59.

“The Canal Treaties: The Other Debate on Central America,” Caribbean Review 25 (1987): 25-28.

“Does the United States Push Revolutions to Cuba? The Case of Grenada,” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 28 (Spring 1986): 1-34.

“Explaining U.S. Policy Toward the Caribbean Basin: Fixed and Emerging Images,” World Politics, Vol. 38, No. 3 (April 1986).

“Migration and Development in the Caribbean: Relating Policies and People,” International Migration Review (Spring 1985).

“The Problem of Puerto Rico: American Interests and the Island’s Identity,” The New Republic, November 12, 1984.

“U.S. Immigration Policy and Latin America: In Search of the Special Relationship,” Latin American Research Review (Fall 1984).

“The International Debate on Puerto Rico: The Costs of Being an Agenda-Taker,” International Organization 38, 3 (Summer, 1984).

“The United States and Puerto Rico: A Proposal,” Washington Quarterly, Vol. 7, No. 3 (Summer, 1984).

“Latin America and the Marshall Plan Reflex,” with Richard E. Feinberg, Vital Issues, Connecticut, 1984.

“Continuity and Change in U.S. Foreign Policy: Carter and Reagan on El Salvador,” Journal of Policy

Analysis and Management, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Winter, 1984).

“Sinking in the Caribbean Basin,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 60, No. 5 (Summer, 1982).

“Our Real National Interests in Central America,” The Atlantic Monthly, cover story, Vol. 250, No. 1, July, 1982.

“Remembering Omar Torrijos: Ode to Omar,” The New Republic, August 15, 1981.

“Three Perspectives on El Salvador,” SAIS Review 2 (Johns Hopkins University), Summer, 1981.


“The Delicate Balance Between Coercion and Diplomacy: Haiti and Panama,” in The United States and Coercive Diplomacy: Lessons Learned from the Early Post-Cold War World, eds. Robert Art and Patrick Cronin (U.S. Institute for Peace, 2003)

“U.S. Foreign Policy Toward Latin America and the Caribbean,” The Encyclopedia of U.S. Foreign Relations (Lakeville, CT: American Reference Publishing Company, 1996).

“To Intervene or Not to Intervene: The Question for U.S. Policy in the Caribbean Basin,” in U.S. and Russian Policy-Making with Respect to the Use of Force, ed. Jeremy R. Azrael (Santa Monica: RAND, 1996).

“Disagreeing on Latin America,” in Congress and the Making of Foreign Policy, ed. Paul E. Peterson (Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994).

“The Invasion of Grenada: A Pre- and Post-Mortem,” in Scott MacDonald, Harald Sandstrom, and Paul Goodwin (eds.), The Caribbean After Grenada (N.Y.: Praeger Publishers, 1988).

“The Impact of Grenada on the Caribbean: Ripples From a Revolution,” in Jack W. Hopkins (ed.), Latin America and Caribbean, Contemporary Record III, 1983-84 (N.Y.: Holmes and Meier, 1985).

“Puerto Rico as an International Issue: A Motive for Movement?” in Richard Bloomfield (ed.), Puerto Rico: The Need for a National Policy(Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1985).

“Congress’ Impact on Latin America: Is There a Madness in the Method?” and “U.S. Sugar Politics and Latin America: Asymmetries in Input and Impact,” in Abraham F. Lowenthal (ed.) The Conduct of Routine Economic Relations: U.S. Foreign Policy-Making to Latin America, Vol. III, I. Commission on the Organization of the Government for the Conduct of Foreign Policy (Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1975).