Democracy and Elections


“Voting and ID Requirements: A Survey of Registered Voters in Three States,” American Review of Public Administration. With Robert Santos, Alison Prevost, and Vassia Stoilov, September 16, 2009.

“America Observed: Why Foreign Election Observers Would Rate the U.S. Near the Bottom,” The American Prospect, January 2005.

“Building a Democratic State: Is It Possible? A Review Essay of State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st Century,” books by Francis Fukuyama, and “The Future of Freedom,” with Fareed Zakaria, Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 58, No. 1 (Fall 2004).

“Collectively Defending Democracy: The Inter-American Model,” The Brown Journal of World Affairs, Vol. XI, No. 1 (Summer/Fall 2004).

“The Flip Side: Corruption’s Threat to Democracy,” Elections Today (IFES), Vol. 11, No. 1 (2003).

“A Community of Democracies in the Americas: Instilling Substance into Wondrous Phrase,” Canadian Foreign Policy (Carleton University, Ottawa), Vol. 10, No. 3 (Spring 2003).

“The Meaning of China’s Village Elections” with Quingshan Tan, in “Elections in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Mainland China: Does Limited Democracy Lead to Democracy?”, edited by Larry Diamond and Ramon H. Myers, China Quarterly, June 2000.

“The Role of Electoral Administration in Democratic Transitions: Implications for Policy and Research,” Democratization, Vol. 6, No. 4 (Winter 1999).

“Elections in China: Potemkin or Jeffersonian Villages,” Harvard Asia Quarterly (Winter 1999), Vol. 3, No. 1.

“Mediating Elections,” Journal of Democracy, Vol. 9, No. 1 (January 1998).

“The Centrality of Elections: A Global Review,” New Perspectives Quarterly (Fall 1996).

“With the Carter Team in Haiti,” Worldview, Spring 1995.  US

“Moderating Ethnic Tensions by Electoral Mediation: The Case of Guyana,” Security Dialogue, Vol. 24, No. 2 (June 1993). (With David Carroll)

“A Discordant Consensus on Democracy,” Diplomatic History, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Winter 1993).

“Pollwatching and Peacemaking,” Journal of Democracy, Vol. 2, No. 4 (Fall 1991). With Jennifer McCoy and Larry Garber.

“Nicaragua’s Choice: The Making of a Free Election,” Journal of Democracy, Vol. 1, No. 3 (Summer 1990): 13-25.


“China’s Elections: Foreword,” in Village Elections in China: Democratizing the Countryside, by Qingshan Tan (Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 2006).

“The US Administration of Elections: Decentralized to the Point of Being Dysfunctional,” in Electoral Management Design: The International IDEA Handbook. (Stokholm: International IDEA, 2006).

“Is Democracy Possible in China? If So, What Paths Might China Take,” in Democratization in Mainland China and Taiwan, edited by Thomas Bellows (N.Y.: St. Johns University Press, 2000).

“More and Less Than It Seemed: The Carter-Nunn-Powell Mission in Haiti, 1994”, in Herding Cats: The Management of Complex International Mediation, edited by Chester Crocker, Fen Hampson, and Pamela Aall (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Institute of Peace, 1999).

“The Third Dimension of Accountability: The Role of the International Community in National Elections,” and “A Brief History of Electoral Administration,” in The Self-Restraining State: Corruption and Accountability in New Democracies, eds. Andreas Schedler, Larry Diamond, and Marc F. Plattner (Boulder, Colo: Lynne Rienner Press, 1998).

“A Popular Democratic Revolution in a Predemocratic Society: The Case of Haiti,” in Haiti Renewed: Political and Economic Prospects, ed. Robert I. Rotberg (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1997).

“Monitoring Elections,” in Encyclopedia of Democracy (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1995).